3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy)

3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy)

文章Andy » 週三 2月 20, 2019 3:40 am

Hello! I'm Andy. It's my pleasure to be the host on 3/2. If you have no vacation plan in the coming 228 holidays, you are welcomed to join us. :D

Session I: Filter Bubble
Beware online "filter bubbles" | Eli Pariser

Filter Bubbles and Echo Chambers


過濾氣泡(英語:filter bubble、個人化資料過濾、篩選小圈圈)是一種網站針對個人化搜尋而提供篩選後內容的結果。網站內嵌的演算法會透過使用者的地區、先前活動紀錄或是搜尋結果來給予使用者想要的或是觀點一致的結果。這種結果可能會導致使用者越來越看不到他們不同意的觀點或資訊,使得認知過於單向,並處於他們的文化、意識形態氣泡之中。主要的例子為Google的個人化搜尋結果以及Facebook的個人化動態消息、亞馬遜與Netflix的過濾性推薦系統。這個詞彙被網路活動者Eli Pariser提出。
來源: 維基百科

迴聲室效應(英語:echo chamber)或稱「同溫層效應」。在媒體上是指在一個相對封閉的環境中,一些意見相近的聲音不斷重複,並以誇張或其他扭曲形式重複,令處於相對封閉環境中的大多數人認為這些扭曲的故事就是事實的全部。在現代社會中,由於網際網路的應用,社交媒體的發展,令到這個現象更加深刻,因為部分商業網站會根據搜尋結果記錄提供相類近性質的網站資料。
來源: 維基百科

[Questions]
1. Companies like Google, Amazon, Facebook, Netflix and Apple all work on “content personalization” to improve user experience. What are the advantages and disadvantages of filtering personalization content on the web? What do you think of filter bubble and should we worry about it?

2. People tend to think that what they see is all there is, without realizing that what they see is being filtered. How do you know what happened in Taiwan or in the world? Is the news reporting in Taiwan fair and objective without bias? How do you feel about the news channels and newspapers?
News Channels (in stroke order): TVBS、三立、中天、中視、公視、民視、年代、台視、東森、華視
Newspapers (in stroke order): 自由、中時、聯合、蘋果

3. Most people prefer specific news channels, newspapers or social media that usually provide content they like or closely related to them? What do you think of people that willingly choose to live in an echo chamber? Do you believe "echo chamber" thoughts are dangerous?

4. Everyone inevitably will become a member of many groups, such as family, friends, political groups, religious groups, etc. Some of the groups will influence you thoughts or even values. How can you know if you're in an echo chamber? How can you avoid creating an echo chamber for yourself?


Session II: Spiral of Silence
Article: https://www.businesstopia.net/mass-comm ... nce-theory
圖檔

沉默螺旋(英語:spiral of silence)是一個政治學和大眾傳播理論,由伊莉莎白·諾爾-紐曼於1974年在發表於《傳播學刊》(Journal of Communication)上的《沉默的螺旋:一種大眾觀點理論》一文中最早提出。並在1980年出版的《沉默的螺旋:輿論——我們的社會皮膚》一書中完善。主要概念是:如果人們覺得自己的觀點是公眾中的少數派,他們將不願意傳播自己的看法;而如果他們覺得自己的看法與多數人一致,他們會勇敢的說出來。而且媒體通常會關注多數派的觀點,輕視少數派的觀點。於是少數派的聲音越來越小,多數派的聲音越來越大,形成一種螺旋式上升的模式。
來源: 維基百科

團體迷思(英文:Groupthink,亦作團體盲思、集體錯覺)是一個心理學現象,指的是團體在決策過程中,由於成員傾向讓自己的觀點與團體一致,因而令整個團體缺乏不同的思考角度,不能進行客觀分析。一些值得爭議的觀點、有創意的想法或客觀的意見不會有人提出,或是在提出之後,遭到其他團體成員的忽視及隔離。團體迷思可能導致團體作出不合理、甚至是很壞的決定。部份成員即使並不贊同團體的最終決定,但在團體迷思的影響下,也會順從團體。
來源: 維基百科

[Questions]
Before the session starts, we will have an anonymous and secret ballot for some controversial issues as follows:
死刑 (death penalty)、安樂死 (euthanasia or mercy killing)、通姦除罪化 (decriminalization of adultery)、吃狗肉 (dog meat)、賽馬 (horse racing)、性專區/紅燈區 (red light district)、賭博專區 (casino zone)、鞭刑 (caning)

1. Are the results of referendum in Taiwan last year the same as you predicted? If not, what causes your prediction to be incorrect? If so, what causes your prediction to be correct?

2. "Spiral of Silence" says that people will not comment on controversial topics and will stay silent in fear of people with different opinions attacking them. How and to what extent does the spiral of silence influence your emotion, feelings and voting habits?

3. One of the main aspects of “spiral of silence theory” is fear of isolation and exclusion of a group of people. Would you insist on your belief in public and fight back if most people are against you? How do you defend yourself against groupthink especially when the group members are your family, friends or colleagues?

4. Choose one or two abovementioned controversial issues to RATIONALLY discuss with others. Does knowing the results of the secret ballot in advance affect your viewpoint?

2018 Taiwanese referendum
圖檔
1. (National Referendum Proposition 7) Do you agree “To reduce by 1% year by year” the electricity production of thermal power plants? (你是否同意以「平均每年至少降低1%」之方式逐年降低火力發電廠發電量?)

2. (National Referendum Proposition 8 ) Do you agree to the establishment of an energy policy to “Stop construction and expansion of any coal-fired thermal power plants or generator units (including the Shen Ao Power Plant currently under construction)”? (您是否同意確立「停止新建、擴建任何燃煤發電廠或發電機組(包括深澳電廠擴建)」之能源政策?)

3. (National Referendum Proposition 9) Do you agree that the government should maintain the prohibition of agricultural imports and food from areas affected by the Fukushima March 11th Disaster? Specifically, those from Fukushima proper and the 4 surrounding districts and cities of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, and Chiba? (你是否同意政府維持禁止開放日本福島311核災相關地區,包括福島與周遭4縣市(茨城、櫪木、群馬、千葉)等地區農產品及食品進口?)

4. (National Referendum Proposition 10) Do you agree that marriage defined in the Civil Code should be restricted to the union between one man and one woman? (你是否同意民法婚姻規定應限定在一男一女的結合?)

5. (National Referendum Proposition 11) Do you agree that the Ministry of Education should not implement the Enforcement Rules of the Gender Equality Education Act in elementary and middle schools? (你是否同意在國民教育階段內(國中及國小),教育部及各級學校不應對學生實施性別平等教育法施行細則所定之同志教育?)

6. (National Referendum Proposition 12) Do you agree to the protection of the rights of same-sex couples in co-habitation on a permanent basis in ways other than changing of the Civil Code? (你是否同意以民法婚姻規定以外之其他形式來保障同性別二人經營永久共同生活的權益?)

7. (National Referendum Proposition 13) Do you agree to the use of “Taiwan” when participating in all international sport competitions, including the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics? (你是否同意,以「台灣」(Taiwan)為全名申請參加所有國際運動賽事及2020年東京奧運?)

8. (National Referendum Proposition 14) Do you agree to the protection of same-sex marital rights with marriage as defined in the Civil Code? (您是否同意,以民法婚姻章保障同性別二人建立婚姻關係?)

9. (National Referendum Proposition 15) Do you agree in accordance with the Gender Equality Education Act that national education of all levels should educate students on the importance of gender equality, emotional education, sex education, and same-sex education? (您是否同意,以「性別平等教育法」明定在國民教育各階段內實施性別平等教育,且內容應涵蓋情感教育、性教育、同志教育等課程?)

10. (National Referendum Proposition 16) Do you agree to repeal Article 95 Paragraph 1 of the Electricity Act: “Nuclear-energy-based power generating facilities shall wholly stop running by 2025”? (您是否同意:廢除電業法第95條第1項,即廢除「核能發電設備應於中華民國一百十四年以前,全部停止運轉」之條文?)


********************************************************************************************************************************************
Agenda:
3:45 ~ 4:00pm Greetings & Free Talk / Ordering Beverage or Meal / Getting Newcomer’s Information
4:00 ~ 4:20pm Opening Remarks / Newcomer’s Self-introduction / Grouping
(Session I)
4:20 ~ 5:00pm Discussion Session (40 mins)
5:00 ~ 5:20pm Summarization / Regrouping (20 mins)
5:20 ~ 5:30pm Break
(Session II)
5:30 ~ 6:10pm Discussion Session (40 mins)
6:10 ~ 6:30pm Summarization / Concluding Remarks / Announcements (20 mins)
********************************************************************************************************************************************
聚會日期:列於該貼文主題內
聚會時間:當天請準時於 4:00 pm 到達 ~ 約 6:30 pm 左右結束
星期六聚會地點:丹堤濟南店
地址、電話:台北市濟南路三段25號 (02) 2740-2350
捷運站:板南線 忠孝新生站 3 號出口
走法:出忠孝新生站 3 號出口後,沿著巷子(忠孝東路三段10巷)走約 2 分鐘,到了濟南路口,左轉走約 2 分鐘即可看到。
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與會者請先閱讀過文章,並仔細想過所有的問題,謝謝合作!


給新朋友的話:
1. 請事先準備 2~3 分鐘的英語自我介紹;會議結束前可能會請你發表 1~2 分鐘的感想。
2. 請事先閱讀文章以及主持人所提的討論問題,並事先寫下自己所欲發表意見的英文。
3. 全程以英語進行,參加者應具備中等英語會話能力,對任一討論問題,能夠以 5 到 10 句英文表達個人見解。
4. 在正式加入之前,可以先來觀摩三次,觀摩者亦須參與討論。正式加入需繳交終身會費 NT$1,000。
最後由 Andy 於 週四 2月 28, 2019 1:50 pm 編輯,總共編輯了 1 次。
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Andy
Vice President
 
文章: 99
註冊時間: 週五 12月 17, 2004 4:36 pm
來自: Taipei

Re: 3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy

文章Luis Ko » 週四 2月 28, 2019 1:26 pm

good topics! i will definitely be there. :lol:
i might be a cynic and, a sceptic as well but, i'm definitely not a bad person!!
Luis Ko
YOYO member
 
文章: 860
註冊時間: 週三 6月 06, 2007 10:18 pm

Re: 3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy

文章Andy » 週四 2月 28, 2019 1:41 pm

Luis Ko 寫:good topics! i will definitely be there. :lol:


I am looking forward to your penetrating insight. :D
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Andy
Vice President
 
文章: 99
註冊時間: 週五 12月 17, 2004 4:36 pm
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Re: 3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy

文章Kooper » 週四 2月 28, 2019 6:08 pm

Before the rise of the Internet, newspapers used to be our major source of information about what was going on in the world. They were supposed to be neutral, but not surprisingly the lion's share of them ended up leaning toward one end of political spectrum or the other. That political bias eventually became an open secret.

Ideally to avoid manipulation, readers should either cut ties with newspapers that had gone too one-sided or read journals with opposite stands, but that was not what happened; not many families subscribed to more than one newspaper to balance their political diet; on the contrary, pro-blue population only read the United Daily News while the pro-green only digest the Liberty Times.

It was as if we willingly and intentionally receive filtered information catered to our political preference. As such, I sometimes wonder if people really concern about the risks of personalized information services or just try to make a big deal out of it.
Kooper
YOYO member
 
文章: 2524
註冊時間: 週三 4月 11, 2007 11:40 pm

Re: 3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy

文章Andy » 週五 3月 01, 2019 9:49 pm

Supplementary Material=>

通姦除罪化 (decriminalization of adultery)

中華民國刑法
第 239 條 有配偶而與人通姦者,處一年以下有期徒刑。其相姦者亦同。

Criminal Code:
Article 239 A married person who commits adultery with another shall be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year; the other party to the adultery shall be subject to the same punishment.
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Andy
Vice President
 
文章: 99
註冊時間: 週五 12月 17, 2004 4:36 pm
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Re: 3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy

文章Andy » 週五 3月 01, 2019 10:01 pm

Supplementary Material:

動物保護法
https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll. ... e=M0060027
Animal Protection Act
https://law.moj.gov.tw/Eng/LawClass/Law ... e=M0060027

第 12 條
對動物不得任意宰殺。但有下列情事之一者,不在此限:
一、為肉用、皮毛用,或餵飼其他動物之經濟利用目的。
二、為科學應用目的。
三、為控制動物群體疾病或品種改良之目的。
四、為控制經濟動物數量過賸,並經主管機關許可。
五、為解除動物傷病之痛苦。
六、為避免對人類生命、身體、健康、自由、財產或公共安全有立即危險。
七、收容於動物收容處所或直轄市、縣(市)主管機關指定之場所,經獸醫師檢查患有法定傳染病、重病無法治癒、嚴重影響環境衛生之動物或其他緊急狀況,嚴重影響人畜健康或公共安全。
八、其他依本法規定或經中央主管機關公告之事由。

中央主管機關得公告禁止宰殺前項第一款之動物。

任何人不得因第一項第一款所定事由,有下列行為之一:
一、宰殺犬、貓或販賣、購買、
食用或持有其屠體、內臟或含有其成分之食品。
二、販賣經中央主管機關公告禁止宰殺動物之屠體。
依第十四條第二項規定准許認領、認養之動物,不包括依第八條公告禁止飼養或輸入之動物。但公告前已飼養或輸入,並依第三十六條第一項辦理登記者,准由原飼主認領。
本法中華民國一百零四年一月二十三日修正之條文施行之日起二年內,收容於動物收容處所或直轄市、縣(市)主管機關指定之場所,經通知或公告超過十二日而無人認領、認養或適當處置之動物,得予以宰殺,不適用第一項規定。

第 3 條
本法用詞,定義如下:
動物:指犬、貓及其他人為飼養或管領之脊椎動物,包括經濟動物、實驗動物、寵物及其他動物。
...
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Andy
Vice President
 
文章: 99
註冊時間: 週五 12月 17, 2004 4:36 pm
來自: Taipei

Re: 3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy

文章Douglas » 週六 3月 02, 2019 10:50 am

Really meaningful and interesting topics, thanks a lot!!
Douglas
YOYO member
 
文章: 10
註冊時間: 週三 12月 09, 2015 3:43 pm

Re: 3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy

文章Andy » 週六 3月 02, 2019 10:17 pm

Attendees(24): Andy Liu(host), Amber(newcomer), Michelle(newcomer), Teresa(newcomer), Tina(newcomer), Jan(newcomer), Andy Chen, Iris, Debby, Leon, Tim, Luis, Douglas, Christine, Alice, David Jr, Felicidad, Steve, John, Tim, Rita, Johnie, Julian, ...
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Andy
Vice President
 
文章: 99
註冊時間: 週五 12月 17, 2004 4:36 pm
來自: Taipei

Re: 3/2 (Sat.) Filter Bubble / Spiral of Silence (Host: Andy

文章Andy » 週六 3月 02, 2019 10:29 pm

Result of Anonymous and Secret Ballot:

For / Against / Neutral
死刑 (death penalty)
81% / 14% / 5%
安樂死 (euthanasia or mercy killing)
86% / 14%
通姦除罪化 (decriminalization of adultery)
52% / 43% / 5%
吃狗肉 (dog meat)
38% / 62%
賽馬 (horse racing)
67% / 33%
性專區/紅燈區 (red light district)
71% / 29%
賭博專區 (casino zone)
71% / 29%
鞭刑 (caning)
52% / 48%
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Andy
Vice President
 
文章: 99
註冊時間: 週五 12月 17, 2004 4:36 pm
來自: Taipei


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